L’Union européenne et la question du Sahara: entre la reconnaissance de la souveraineté du Maroc et les errements de la justice européenne

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Table of Contents: I. Introduction. – II. La reconnaissance par l’Union européenne de la souveraineté du Maroc sur le Sahara. – II.1. La reconnaissance par l’Union européenne de la souveraineté du Maroc sur le Sahara à travers une série d’accords internationaux, dont l’accord de partenariat. – II.2. La reconnaissance par l’Union européenne de la souveraineté du Maroc sur le Sahara à travers sa conduite subséquente. – III. La non-reconnaissance par la justice européenne de la souveraineté du Maroc sur le Sahara lors de l’examen de la validité de l’accord de 2012 relatif aux mesures de libéralisation. – III.1. L’arrêt du Tribunal du 10 décembre 2015. – III.2. L’arrêt de la Cour de justice du 21 décembre 2016. – IV. Conclusion.

Abstract: This Dialogue aims at addressing the ambivalent policy of the EU with regard to the Western Sahara conflict. Adopting a strictly legal perspective, it seeks to show that, while the political organs of the EU (the Council and the Commission) have recognized, through several international agreements signed in the past thirty years as well as through their subsequent conduct to these agreements, the sovereignty of Morocco over Western Sahara territory, the judicial organs of the EU (the General Court, in the first instance, and the Court of Justice, on appeal) have recently adopted an opposite stand (see General Court, judgment of 10 December 2015, case T-512/12, Front Polisario v. Coucil of the European Union and Court of Justice, judgment of 21 December 2016, case C-104/16 P, Council of the European Union v. Front Polisario [GC]), and taken the risk to act ultra vires as their decisions are legally unfounded and contradict major principles of international law.

Keywords: self-determination – non-self-governing territories – law of treaties – subsequent conduct – permanent sovereignty over natural resources – Western Sahara conflict.

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European Papers, Vol. 2, 2017, No 3, pp. 923-951
ISSN
2499-8249 - doi: 10.15166/2499-8249/183

* Professeur émérite, Université Hassan II, Casablanca, hamid.elouali@gmail.com.

 

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