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The General Court’s Ruling in Tercas: Between Imputability of the Aid to the State and Use of State Resources


Abstract: This Insight examines the clarification provided by the General Court’s ruling in Tercas (namely, judgment of 19 March 2019, joined cases T-98/16, T-196/16 and T-198/16, Italy and Others v. Commission) with regard to two constituent elements of the notion of State aid: the “imputability to the State” and the “use...

“Lawful Employment” as a Precondition for the Recognition of Residence Rights: Bajratari


Abstract: In the judgment of Bajratari, the Court of Justice was asked to determine whether the availability of sufficient resources established by Art. 7, para. 1, let. b), of Directive 2004/38/EU as a precondition for the recognition of Union citizens’ right of residence in another Member State for more than three months should be...

For a Few Cigarettes More: Comments on AG Saugmandsgaard Øe's Opinion in the JTI Case


Abstract: In his Opinion delivered on 6 December 2018 in case C-596/17, JTI, AG Saugmandsgaard Øe argued that Art. 15, para. 1, of Directive 2011/64 authorises Member States to prevent tobacco manufacturers and importers from varying the retail selling price per item or gram for each of their manufactured tobaccos of a certain brand and...

Antitrust and Coopservice: Procurement Aggregation Is a Serious Thing (Adjudicating Too)


Abstract: Antritrust and Coopservice (judgment of 19 December 2018, case C-216/17) is a peculiar product of the Court of Justice. It is one of a kind in aggregate procurement, a subfield of public procurement that has remained virtually untouched by the Court. A number of very helpful and reasonable directions can be drawn from this judgment with respect to...

Towards Common Minimum Standards for Whistleblower Protection Across the EU


Abstract: This Insight describes the content of the Proposal for a Directive on the protection of persons reporting on breaches of Union law, approved with amendments by the European Parliament and formally adopted by the Council on 7th October 2019. The Directive, which will now be formally signed and published in the...

“Uber test” Revised? Remarks on Opinion of AG Szpunar in Case Airbnb Ireland


Abstract: In his opinion delivered on 30 April 2019 in case C-390/18, Airbnb Ireland, the AG Szpunar stated that Airbnb provides an information society service. He also proposed a revision of the “Uber test” established in the previous case-law of the CJEU. In this Insight, the opinion is summarized and critically commented,...

Do Employers Need to Record Working Time? The Court of Justice Gives Guidance in Confederación Sindical de Comisiones Obreras (CCOO) v. Deutsche Bank SAE


Keywords: working time – rest breaks – health and safety – Charter – record-keeping – control.

Do employers need to keep a record of workers’ actual hours worked? The Court of Justice had the opportunity to provide an answer in Confederación Sindical de Comisiones Obreras (CCOO) v. Deutsche Bank SAE....

State Aid, the Criterion of State Resources and Renewable Energy Support Mechanisms: Fresh Wind from Luxembourg in EEG 2012


Abstract: EEG 2012 (judgment of 28 March 2019, case C-405/16 P, Germany v. Commission) deals with the assessment under EU State aid rules of a German renewable energy support mechanism in force from 2012 to 2014. The case hinged on the proper interpretation and application of the criterion of State resources. The Court of Justice...