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How Does Belligerent Occupation End? Some Reflections on the Future of the Territories Occupied in the Russia-Ukraine Conflict


Keywords: belligerent occupation – armed conflict – end – peace – Ukraine – Russia.

In the past months, news outlets have extensively reported on Ukraine’s more or less effective counter-offensive, as well as on renewed rumours of possible negotiations between Ukraine and Russia....

The Wave of Russian Attacks on Ukraine’s Power Infrastructures: An Opportunity to Infuse Meaningfulness into the Notion of 'Dual-use Objects'?


Abstract: The wave of attacks launched by Russia against Ukraine’s power infrastructures since October 2022 represents one of the most debated and peculiar aspects of the current international armed conflict between the two countries. Although these types of attacks cannot be labelled as unprecedented nor understudied given their frequent occurrence...

The European Political Community: A Nebulous Answer to the Strategic Question of How to Unite Europe


Abstract: The European Political Community (EPC) is an institutionalised but flexible forum for political coordination between European countries. It was established in the aftermath of the Russian invasion of Ukraine in 2022. While the EPC is only in its early stages, and therefore there is a significant element of volatility in the subject, this...

Ukraine Conflict’s Impact on European Defence and Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO)


Abstract: The history of a unified European defence has persistently shaped the European Union's foreign policy, evolving over time. The EU has worked on a robust and coherent Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), particularly boosted by the European Union Global Strategy (EUGS) in 2016, which was issued after external shocks threatened Europe...

Admission et protection des investissements étrangers à l’ère des sanctions européennes contre la Russie visant à protéger l’intégrité territoriale de l’Ukraine


Abstract: The intensification of restrictive measures adopted by the European Union and its member states in the wake of Russia's offensive in Ukraine raises the question of their interaction with legal regimes applicable to foreign investments which follow diametrically opposed objectives. Indeed, recent trends show that foreign investment regimes...

Let’s Call It What It Is: Hybrid Threats and Instrumentalisation as the Evolution of Securitisation in Migration Management


Abstract: This Insight examines the discourse surrounding the instrumentalisation of migration and its impact on monitoring the EU’s external borders. It analyses the regulatory response, focusing on the Instrumentalisation Regulation, to determine if an exceptional emergency response is justified. The article explores recent arguments...

A Country, but not a State? The Apparent Paradox of International Statehood in Case C-632/20 P, Spain v Commission (Kosovo)


Abstract: In the case of Spain v Commission the General Court and the Court of Justice of the European Union had to determine whether Kosovo fell into the scope of the definition “third countries” for the purposes of art. 35 of Regulation (EU) 2018/1971 (the “BEREC Regulation”). Despite offering differing viewpoints, the two courts arrived...

Special Focus on EU Strategic Autonomy and Technological Sovereignty: An Introduction


Abstract: This Special Focus aims at reflecting on the concepts of European technological sovereignty (ETS) and European strategic autonomy (ESA). Taking a legal perspective, it gathers the Insights of a group of scholars on highly debated issues such as the EU’s strategic autonomy, technical and digital sovereignty....