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The Human-centric Perspective in the Regulation of Artificial Intelligence

Insight

Abstract: The development of new emerging technologies, such as artificial intelligence, has sparked a scientific debate on their risks and benefits. This debate necessitates legal and regulatory considerations, particularly regarding the balance between technological growth and the protection of human rights. This Insight analyses the...

Media in War: An Overview of the European Restrictions on Russian Media

Insight

Abstract: The ongoing Russia-Ukraine conflict has triggered a multitude of media regulation challenges within the EU. With the Russian state propaganda machinery continuing to work in full swing, it has become increasingly critical for the EU to regulate media content to prevent the dissemination of disinformation, harmful and misleading information...

Financing European Defence: The End of Budgetary Taboos

Insight

Abstract: Since the Treaty of Lisbon, signed in 2007, the common security and defence policy shall include the progressive framing of a common Union defence policy, which may lead to a common defence. However, the key question is the financing of such policy. To address this issue, several taboos have been progressively lifted in terms of financial...

Between a Rock and a Hard Place: The Impact of Rule of Law Backsliding on the EU’s Response to the Russo-Ukrainian War

Insight

Abstract: In the past decade, Hungary and Poland have experienced a process of rule of law backsliding that threatens the state of democracy at home, and affects the decision making and legitimacy of the European Union as a whole. In the face of Russia’s war of aggression against Ukraine, the response of Hungary and Poland has been diametrically opposed, but...

Bumpy Road of Ukraine Towards the EU Membership in Time of War: “Accession Through War” v “Gradual Integration”

Insight

Abstract: The candidate country status for Ukraine was justified and widely supported by the EU institutions and EU Member States because of Russia’s brutal invasion of Ukraine in February 2022. However, Ukraine’s accession to the EU is not going to be an easy ride. It is the first case in history of EU integration when a candidate country that...

The European Political Community: A Nebulous Answer to the Strategic Question of How to Unite Europe

Insight

Abstract: The European Political Community (EPC) is an institutionalised but flexible forum for political coordination between European countries. It was established in the aftermath of the Russian invasion of Ukraine in 2022. While the EPC is only in its early stages, and therefore there is a significant element of volatility in the subject, this...

Ukraine Conflict’s Impact on European Defence and Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO)

Insight

Abstract: The history of a unified European defence has persistently shaped the European Union's foreign policy, evolving over time. The EU has worked on a robust and coherent Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), particularly boosted by the European Union Global Strategy (EUGS) in 2016, which was issued after external shocks threatened Europe...

PL Holdings case: The Investor Ordered to Pay the Expropriating State's Costs, a New Consequence of Achmea

Insight

Abstract: In the Swedish Supreme Court's epilogue to the PL Holdings case, the expropriated company lost all its claims against Poland, which had expropriated it. Applying the case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) on intra-European investment arbitration, the Supreme Court did not merely invalidate the ad hoc...

Disorder and Discipline: The ECB’s Transmission Protection Instrument

Insight

Abstract: In the asymmetric Economic and Monetary Union “market discipline” has played an important and controversial role to compensate for the weakness of the legal framework as regards fiscal affairs. Both as an empirical matter of market behaviour and as a matter of the “no bail-out” clauses of arts 123 and 125 TFEU being effectively undermined...

Decentralized Finance and EU Law: The Regulation on a Pilot Regime for Market Infrastructures Based on Distributed Ledger Technology

Insight

Abstract: The decentralized issuance of financial instruments is presently problematic under EU law. This situation will change with the entry into force of the Regulation on a pilot regime for market infrastructures based on distributed ledger technology. The Regulation provides for a regulatory sandbox – the pilot regime – that market operators...

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