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EU-Vietnam Free Trade Agreement: Insights on the Substantial and Procedural Guarantees for Labour Protection in Vietnam


Abstract: On 12 February 2020, the European Parliament gave its green light for a free trade agreement between the EU and Vietnam. After its conclusion by the Council and ratification by the Vietnamese General Assembly, it is likely to enter into force in early Summer 2020. During the long negotiation period, the project attracted criticism and...

A New European Fundamental Rights Court: The German Constitutional Court on the Right to Be Forgotten


Abstract: This Insight concerns two judgments of the German Federal Constitutional Court from 6 November 2019, Right to be Forgotten I and II. The judgments present an overhaul of the Court’s own positioning within the system of EU multilevel fundamental rights adjudication and bring substantial novelties to the EU law...

Cities’ Legal Actions in the EU: Towards a Stronger Urban Power?


Abstract: The case discussed is an example of how cities can have an independent role in EU governance. In 2016, the cities of Madrid, Brussels and Paris brought actions before the General Court (Art. 263 TFEU), asking for the annulment of Regulation 646/2016, as regards emissions from Euro 6 vehicles. De facto, the Commission changed the...

The X Case: The Influence of the Resource Requirement on Long Term Residents’ Integration and National Authorities’ Discretionary Powers


Abstract: In the X case (judgment of 3 October 2019, case C-302/18), the Court of Justice addressed for the first time the application of the resource requirement of the Directive 2003/09/EC, a precondition for the obtainment of the status of long-term resident by third-country nationals. In its ruling, the Court compared the provision of...

Google v. CNIL: The Territorial Scope of the Right to Be Forgotten Under EU Law


Abstract: This Insight provides a critical analysis of the judgment of 24 September 2019, Google Inc. v. Commission nationale de l’informatique et des libertés (CNIL), case C-507/17, which clarified the territorial scope of the right to be forgotten under current EU law by holding that it only applies within EU borders. Although...

For a Few Cigarettes More: The AG Opinion in the JTI Case


Abstract: In his Opinion delivered on 6 December 2018 in case C-596/17, JTI, AG Saugmandsgaard Øe argued that Art. 15, para. 1, of Directive 2011/64 authorises Member States to prevent tobacco manufacturers and importers from varying the retail selling price per item or gram for each of their manufactured tobaccos of a certain brand and...

The General Court’s Ruling in Tercas: Between Imputability of the Aid to the State and Use of State Resources


Abstract: This Insight examines the clarification provided by the General Court’s ruling in Tercas (namely, judgment of 19 March 2019, joined cases T-98/16, T-196/16 and T-198/16, Italy and Others v. Commission) with regard to two constituent elements of the notion of State aid: the “imputability to the State” and the “use...

The Rule of Law Crisis Deepens in Poland after A.K. v. Krajowa Rada Sadownictwa and CP, DO v. Sad Najwyzszy


Abstract: The Insight analyses the recent judgment of the Court of Justice in joined cases C-585/18, C-624/18 and C-625/1, A.K. v. Krajowa Rada Sądownictwa and CP, DO v. Sąd Najwyższy, hereafter A.K. and Others. The ruling has had considerable impact on the crisis of the rule of law in Poland and the note evaluates its...

“Lawful Employment” as a Precondition for the Recognition of Residence Rights: Bajratari


Abstract: In the judgment of Bajratari, the Court of Justice was asked to determine whether the availability of sufficient resources established by Art. 7, para. 1, let. b), of Directive 2004/38/EU as a precondition for the recognition of Union citizens’ right of residence in another Member State for more than three months should be...

L’illégalité de la suspension du Parlement britannique demandée par Boris Johnson: la décision du 24 septembre 2019 rendue par la Cour suprême britannique


Keywords: Brexit – prorogation – constitutional convention – Supreme Court – parliamentary sovereignty – parliamentary democracy.

“Crucially, today’s ruling confirms that we are a nation governed by the rule of law, laws that everyone, even the Prime Minister, are subject to” a déclaré Gina Miller à la sortie...