The Spitzenkandidaten Method and the European Material Constitution


Keywords: Spitzenkandidat – lead candidate – material constitution – European Commission – Parliament – art. 17(7) TEU.

Legal studies on the method for the appointment of the President of the Commission, known as Spitzenkandidaten, are not frequent. Yet this method has been known and discussed at least for...

Nine Theses on Autonomy: Making Sense of a Controversial Doctrine


Table of Contents: I. Introduction. – II. Autonomy in the early theories of sovereignty. – III. A historical hypothesis: autonomy as an institutional tool. – IV. The triumph of autonomy. – V. A change of paradigm: absolute autonomy v offene Staatlichkeit. – VI. Reverse autonomy. – VII. Autonomy of the EU vis-à-vis its Member States...

Denialism as the Supreme Expression of Realism – A Quick Comment on NF v. European Council


Abstract: By Order of 28 February 2017 in case T-192/16, NF v. European Council, the General Court dismissed as inadmissible an action for annulment brought against the s.c. EU-Turkey deal concluded on 18 March 2016. In the view of the General Court, independently of its binding nature, the deal is to be attributed to the Member States and...


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