The Transformation of Regulatory Cooperation Through Its Inclusion in Free Trade Agreements: What Is Its Added Value?

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Table of Contents: I. Introduction. – II. Transatlantic regulatory cooperation outside an FTA structure. – III. FTA structures regulatory cooperation and regulation imperatives: conflict or harmony? – III.1. The changing nature of regulation. – III.2. Compatibility of regulation and FTA structures for regulatory cooperation. – IV. Tighter...

Achmea: Consequences on Applicable Law and ISDS Clauses in Extra-EU BITs and Future EU Trade and Investment Agreements

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Table of Contents: I. Introduction: the Achmea judgment. – II. The European Commission's assessment and the EU Member States’ position. – III. Potential consequences for existing BITs, CETA and future trade and investment agreements. – III.1. Various forms of applicable law clauses. – III.2. Extra-EU BITs which are silent on the applicable...

The 2019 Elections and the Future Role of the European Parliament: Upsetting the Institutional Balance?

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The elections of May 26 have been welcomed with a sense of relief by the inhabitants of the European districts in Brussels and Strasbourg. If, on the eve of the elections’ day, the dominant mood was fear of a euro-sceptic landslide, that would have deepened the cleavage between peoples and elites and shaken at its roots the process of integration, this mood has gradually...

Achmea Between the Orthodoxy of the Court of Justice and Its Multi-faceted Implications: An Introduction

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Table of Contents: I. Introduction. – II. Achmea, from the perspective of international investment law specialists. – III. An impressive set of consequences inferred from Achmea. – IV. Achmea and the European integration process.

Abstract: The Achmea case has...

I Would Rather Be a Respondent State Before a Domestic Court in the EU than Before an International Investment Tribunal

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Table of Contents: I. Introduction. – II. Who trumps who? – II.1. Is EU law autonomous? – II.2. EU law and Member States’ BITs. – II.3. The peculiar case of the ECT. – III. Achmea or how international investment tribunals do not understand EU law. – III.1. Why investment tribunals do not have jurisdic-tion in all intra-EU disputes? – III.2. The Advocate...

Some Reflections on Achmea’s Broader Consequences for Investment Arbitration

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Table of Contents: I. Introduction. – II. A delicate good: autonomy of the EU legal order. – III. Consequences for CETA’s Investment Court System. – IV. Intra-EU BITs: national courts as the guardian of the Union of law. – V. Autonomy as an obstacle to the Union submitting to the jurisdiction of international courts or tribunals. – VI. The future of...

Regulatory Competition in the EU: Foundations, Tools and Implications – Introduction

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Abstract: The Special Section investigates, from a multidisciplinary perspective, foundations, tools and implications of regulatory competition in the EU legal order. The analysis takes the view that regulatory competition is not just an inevitable corollary of the creation of the internal market, but it is the result of political choices made to...

The False Commodity in the European Game of Legal Chairs: Between the Ideal of Regulatory Competition and the Practice of Capitalism Triumphant

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Table of Contents: I. From the legal regulation of cross-border relations to systematic policy and regulatory competition. – II. European Community law as the discipline of cross-border legal relations. – II.1. Community law as the European law of conflict: coordinating public power through law. – II.2. The limits of Community law as European law of...

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European Forum

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Forum Européen

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