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European Forum Call for Papers: Special Focus on 'The Russian War Against Ukraine and the Law of the European Union'


After only a few weeks, it has become clear that the war waged by the Russian Federation against Ukraine is reshaping not only the landscape of international relations, but also the European Union. Beyond the tragic devastation, suffering and loss of human life, legal questions abound. Other fora have extensively focused on the international law aspects of this severe crisis...

European Forum Call for Papers: Special Focus on 'Instrumentalisation of Migrants, Sanctions Tackling Hybrid Attacks and Schengen Reform in the Shadows of the Pact'


Keywords: Pact on Migration and Asylum – borders – hybrid threats – instrumentalisation – sanctions – proposed reforms.

As the “new” Pact on Migration and Asylum[1] remains deadlocked, the Commission’s last attempt to cope with the refugee and migration crisis at Europe's...

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Latest Insights and Highlights on the European Union and the European Integration


Face aux déconvenues du contentieux climatique de l’Union européenne, les droits fondamentaux au secours du climat?


Abstract: So far, climate change litigation in the European Union has been a disappointment, since the European Court of Justice denied the admissibility of two promising cases in 2021: Sabo ECLI:EU:C:2021:24 and Carvalho ECLI:EU:T:2019:252. Nonetheless, the European human rights litigation can still play a significant role in...

Un mécanisme d’ajustement carbone aux frontières compatible avec le droit de l’OMC: une gageure


Abstract: The adoption of the EU carbon border adjustment mechanism raises several questions of compatibility with World Trade Organization (WTO) rules. Although the European Commission is presenting this measure as a “purely environmental” measure, it is, in reality, a trade defense measure that aims to protect the competitiveness of European...

An Unsettling Déjà-vu: The May 2021 Ceuta Events


Abstract: To properly understand the various factors that have been conducive to diplomatic tensions between Spain and Morocco, following the mass arrival of migrants crossing the border of the Ceuta enclave in May 2021, we need to move the debate beyond the recurrent reference to “blackmail”. The instrumentalization of migration for political and...

Il commercio parallelo di farmaci tra libera circolazione delle merci e prospettive evolutive nell’ambito della nuova Strategia farmaceutica per l’Europa


Abstract: Parallel trade of pharmaceuticals is one of the most contended issues emerging from this industrial sector, which requires to strike a sensitive balance between the fundamental tenets of the internal market (particularly the free movement of goods), the Member States’ competence in regulating the prices of medicines and the conflicting...

Tempus and Two Visions of the Required Level of Diligence in State Aid Assessment


Keywords: State aid – preliminary examination – compatibility of aid – serious doubts – pre-notification contacts – electricity capacity market.

In the judgment in case C‑57/19 P Commission v Tempus Energy and Tempus Energy Technology,[1] the Court of Justice...

Leading by Example, Ideas or Coercion? The Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism as a Case of Hybrid EU Climate Leadership


Abstract: The Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM) is the most recent and assertive component of EU external climate policy. Whilst the CBAM has the potential to accelerate global climate governance, by demonstrating that Parties to the Paris Agreement can combat carbon leakage by means of border measures, it could simultaneously foster...

Misure emergenziali al confine tra UE e Bielorussia: uno scontro tra 'titani' con gravi ripercussioni per i migranti


Abstract: The migration crisis at the EU-Belorussian border is escalating and the potential for grave human rights violations against third country-nationals stuck between the two “titans” is more and more likely to materialize. This Insight aims to provide an overview of the emergency measures that have been adopted at the national and EU...

Working Its Way Back to International Law? The General Court’s Judgments in Joined Cases T-344/19 and T-356/19 and T-279/19 Front Polisario v Council


Abstract: The CJEU’s approach to international law in the context of territorial disputes has generally attracted substantial criticism, both for its engagement therewith – i.e., its tendency to cherry-pick the applicable rules – and reliance thereon – i.e., its tendency to apply international rules in a dissimilar fashion to their...

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