The Court of Justice’s Self-restraint of Reviewing Financial Assistance Conditionality in the Chrysostomides Case

Insight

Abstract: In the Chrysostomides case (joined cases C-597/18 P, C-598/18 P, C-603/18 P and C-604/18 P Council v Chrysostomides & Co. and Others ECLI:EU:C:2020:1028), the Court of Justice (ECJ) confirmed its previous finding that the Eurogroup has only an informal and intergovernmental nature. Building on the cases Ledra...

Rule of Law Conditionality: The Long-awaited Step Towards a Solution of the Rule of Law Crisis in the European Union?

Insight

Abstract: In December 2020, the European Parliament and the Council adopted a new piece of legislation aimed at protecting the rule of law in the Member States of the Union – the so-called rule of law Conditionality Regulation. This contribution tracks the legislative process in the run up to the new Regulation, analyses the substance and the...

Carta dei diritti fondamentali, applicabilità e rapporti fra giudici: la necessità di una tutela integrata

Insight

Abstract: The year 2020 marked the 20th anniversary of the proclamation of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. It was drawn up at the end of a long process, to which the Court of Justice has contributed substantially, affirming since the seventies the obligation to protect fundamental rights in the Community. The drafting of a...

The E.E. Decision Sheds Light on Notaries Acting as 'Courts' and on a Few Other Notions Within the Context of the Succession Regulation

Insight

Abstract: The preliminary questions of the Supreme Court of Lithuania in case E.E. (C-80/19) presented a unique opportunity to provide a more detailed and comprehensive interpretation of several provisions of the Succession Regulation. Responding to them, in its judgment of 16 July 2020 the CJEU discussed the understanding of the cross-...

In the Name of the Rule of Law? CJEU Further Extends Jurisdiction in CFSP (Bank Refah Kargaran)

Insight

Abstract: In Bank Refah Kargaran (case C-134/19 P Bank Refah Kargaran v Council ECLI:EU:C:2020:793), the Court of Justice decided that it has jurisdiction to award damages for non-contractual liability incurred by the EU for harm caused by certain restrictive measures in Common foreign and security policy (CFSP) decisions. In so...

Defining the Boundaries of the Future Common European Asylum System with the Help of Hungary?

Insight

Abstract: In December 2020, the Grand Chamber of the CJUE has confirmed that Hungary has failed to fulfil its obligations under EU law in the area of procedures for granting international protection and returning illegally staying third-country nationals. The judgment in the case Commission v Hungary (case C-808/18 ECLI:EU:C:2020:1029) is...

'Restrictive Measures' Under Art. 215 TFEU: Towards a Unitary Legal Regime? Brief Reflections on the Bank Refah Judgment

Insight

Abstract: In Bank Refah (judgment of 6 October 2020, case C-134/19 P) the Court of Justice provides important clarifications on the type of judicial remedies available in relation to CFSP decisions establishing restrictive measures. As in Rosneft, the Court seems to extend its jurisdiction beyond the so-called “claw-back” provision...

La sentenza Bank Refah Kargaran: l’evoluzione del controllo giurisdizionale sulla PESC

Insight

Abstract: In the Bank Refah Kargaran judgment (case C-134/19 P, judgment of 6 October 2020) the Court of Justice adds the action for damages against CFSP decisions to the list of legal remedies available to individuals targeted by EU restrictive measures. After a brief overview of the case, this Insight examines the reasoning of...

The European Union Customs Administration and the Fight Against Fraud

Insight

Abstract: The EU customs management system is based on uniform legislation that is implemented on a decentralised basis by the Member States. In theory, the Customs Union should operate as if it were one single administration. In practice, the non-harmonised and uncoordinated application of the common customs legislation disrupts the proper...

Soft Law in EU Electronic Communications Regulation: A Bulgarian Case Study

Insight

Abstract: Soft law adopted by the European Commission is an integral part of the EU regulatory framework for electronic communications networks and services, and has always played an important role in the regulatory process. In economic regulation under the framework, the use of binding legislation is limited to prescribing general regulatory powers...

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