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The Legal Framework of the EU Defence Industry and the Pursuit of Strategic Autonomy


Abstract: National autonomy in the defence industry sector is often considered key by Member States to guarantee their national security interest. However, recent developments such as the Russian military aggression against Ukraine brought the need for further integration in this domain into the spotlight. The aim of this Insight is to...

EU Space Policy and Strategic Autonomy: Tackling Legal Complexities in the Enhancement of the ‘Security and Defence Dimension of the Union in Space’


Abstract: EU space policy is an important field in the pursuit of EU strategic autonomy, both as regards the need to protect EU space infrastructures (and industry) from external threats and as regards the need to strengthen EU capacity to act in the space domain for security and defence purposes. However, some complexities exist in the governance...

Foreign Investment Control Procedures as a Tool for Enforcing EU Strategic Autonomy


Abstract: The adoption of EU Regulation 2019/452 establishing a framework for the screening of foreign direct investment into the Union has been met with many reservations. While it appeared that it was becoming crucial for the EU to adopt a screening instrument in order to protect essential European interests, the mechanism that came into force in...

Does the EU's Digital Sovereignty Promote Localisation in Its Model Digital Trade Clauses?


Abstract: The EU increasingly advocates a message of tech or digital sovereignty as its future, which appears to align closely with the concept of strategic autonomy. Arguably digital sovereignty has a highly differentiated understanding in the EU as opposed to the US or China. Increasingly, many suggest EU digital sovereignty in the era of the GDPR...

Simple Abstention and Constructive Abstention in the Context of International Economic Sanctions: Two Too Similar Sides of the Same Coin?


Abstract: Constructive abstention, provided for in art. 31(2) TEU, has been conceived of as an instrument applicable to CFSP acts. As art. 215 TFEU establishes an integrated regime in which CFSP decisions and TFEU regulations are interdependent on each other, the issue arises as to whether the scope of constructive abstention can be extended to...

L’effettività del cd. 'regolamento di blocco' tra coercizione straniera e libertà di impresa: la Corte di giustizia si pronuncia nel caso Bank Melli Iran


Abstract: On 21 December 2021, the Court of Justice decided the case Bank Melli Iran v Telekom Deutschland GmbH (case C-124/20, ECLI:EU:C:2021:1035), relating to the interpretation of Regulation 2271/96 protecting against the effects of extraterritorial application of legislation adopted by a third country, better known as the “blocking...

First-Ever EU Funding of Lethal Weapons: 'Another Taboo Has (Lawfully) Fallen'


Keywords: supply of lethal arms – CFSP – European Peace Facility – Ukraine – territorial integrity – international security.

By decision of 28 February 2022,[1] the Council of the EU unanimously decided to fund (in the amount of euro 1 840 000 000, as last increased by Council...

Navigating Art. 218 TFEU: Third States’ Accession to International Conventions and the Position of the EU in This Respect


Abstract: Setting the general procedure to be followed for the conclusion of international agreements, art. 218 TFEU allocates the powers of the different institutions involved and – compared to the pre-Lisbon legal framework – strengthens the role of the European Parliament. It is therefore with respect to this provision that the status and...

Un mécanisme d’ajustement carbone aux frontières compatible avec le droit de l’OMC: une gageure


Abstract: The adoption of the EU carbon border adjustment mechanism raises several questions of compatibility with World Trade Organization (WTO) rules. Although the European Commission is presenting this measure as a “purely environmental” measure, it is, in reality, a trade defense measure that aims to protect the competitiveness of European...

An Unsettling Déjà-vu: The May 2021 Ceuta Events


Abstract: To properly understand the various factors that have been conducive to diplomatic tensions between Spain and Morocco, following the mass arrival of migrants crossing the border of the Ceuta enclave in May 2021, we need to move the debate beyond the recurrent reference to “blackmail”. The instrumentalization of migration for political and...