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'Restrictive Measures' Under Art. 215 TFEU: Towards a Unitary Legal Regime? Brief Reflections on the Bank Refah Judgment

Insight

Abstract: In Bank Refah (judgment of 6 October 2020, case C-134/19 P) the Court of Justice provides important clarifications on the type of judicial remedies available in relation to CFSP decisions establishing restrictive measures. As in Rosneft, the Court seems to extend its jurisdiction beyond the so-called “claw-back” provision...

La sentenza Bank Refah Kargaran: l’evoluzione del controllo giurisdizionale sulla PESC

Insight

Abstract: In the Bank Refah Kargaran judgment (case C-134/19 P, judgment of 6 October 2020) the Court of Justice adds the action for damages against CFSP decisions to the list of legal remedies available to individuals targeted by EU restrictive measures. After a brief overview of the case, this Insight examines the reasoning of...

The European Union Customs Administration and the Fight Against Fraud

Insight

Abstract: The EU customs management system is based on uniform legislation that is implemented on a decentralised basis by the Member States. In theory, the Customs Union should operate as if it were one single administration. In practice, the non-harmonised and uncoordinated application of the common customs legislation disrupts the proper...

Halcyon Days for the Right to Silence: AG Pikamäe’s Opinion in Case DB v. Consob

Insight

Abstract: The case DB v. Consob (request lodged on 21 June 2019, case C-481/19), pending before the Court of Justice, deals with preliminary questions referred by the Italian Constitutional Court on the applicability and scope of a natural person's right to remain silent during administrative proceedings which may lead to the imposition of...

Dual Preliminarity Within the Scope of the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights in the Light of Order 182/2020 of the Italian Constitutional Court

Insight

Abstract: The Insight discusses order 182/2020 of 30 July 2020 of the Italian Constitutional Court against the background of the latter Court’s approach to dual preliminarity inaugurated in decision 269/2017. It argues that the order confirms an expansionist trend as regards the scope of the Court’s competence in cases concerning the...

Between a Rock and a Hard Place: The Court of Justice’s Judgment in Case Slovenia v. Croatia

Insight

Abstract: The Slovenia v. Croatia case (Court of Justice, judgment of 31 January 2020, case C-457/18) is a complex and politically charged one. Here, the Court of Justice was indirectly called upon to pronounce on the legal effects of an international arbitral award delimiting the territorial and maritime boundary between two Member States...

Sui rapporti tra Carte e Corti: nuovi sviluppi nella ricerca di un sistema rapido ed efficace di tutela dei diritti fondamentali

Insight

Abstract: This Insight deals with the recent case-law of the Italian courts regarding the relationship between domestic and Community rules on fundamental rights, taking into account in particular the substantial and procedural problems that arise when a law is suspected to violate both the Charter of the Fundamental Rights of the EU and...

Poland Before the Court of Justice: Limitless or Limited Case Law on Art. 19 TEU?

Insight

Abstract: In 2019, the Court of Justice has ruled in an innovative case on the protection of the independence of Member States’ judiciaries. In two judgments, delivered in June and November, the Court declared that several statutes amending the organisation of the Polish judicial system infringed the second subparagraph of Art. 19, para. 1, TEU...

A New European Fundamental Rights Court: The German Constitutional Court on the Right to Be Forgotten

Insight

Abstract: This Insight concerns two judgments of the German Federal Constitutional Court from 6 November 2019, Right to be Forgotten I and II. The judgments present an overhaul of the Court’s own positioning within the system of EU multilevel fundamental rights adjudication and bring substantial novelties to the EU law...

Cities’ Legal Actions in the EU: Towards a Stronger Urban Power?

Insight

Abstract: The case discussed is an example of how cities can have an independent role in EU governance. In 2016, the cities of Madrid, Brussels and Paris brought actions before the General Court (Art. 263 TFEU), asking for the annulment of Regulation 646/2016, as regards emissions from Euro 6 vehicles. De facto, the Commission changed the...

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